For horticultural purposes altitude is also a factor; the lower slopes of great mountain ranges, such as the Himalayas and the Andes, are included. Miscellaneous crops include watercress, ginger, lotus, and bamboo. , The Global Horticulture Initiative (GlobalHort) fosters more efficient and effective partnerships and collective action among different stakeholders in horticulture. The professional body representing horticulturists in Great Britain and Ireland is the Chartered Institute of Horticulture (CIoH). Olericulture deals with herbaceous plants for the kitchen, including, for example, carrots (edible root), asparagus (edible stem), lettuce (edible leaf), cauliflower (edible flower buds), tomatoes (edible fruit), and peas (edible seed). The word is derived from the Latin hortus, “garden,” and colere, “to cultivate.” As a general term, it covers all forms of garden management, but in ordinary use it refers to intensive commercial production.  In forest areas such horticulture is often carried out in swiddens ("slash and burn" areas). Updates? Most of the great gardens of the world have been developed in temperate zones. Agricultural cultivations however as a rule focus on one primary crop. The temperate zones are also the areas of the grasses—the finest lawns particularly are in the regions of moderate or high rainfall—and of the great cereal crops. Freelance book editor and consultant. using horticulture to reduce poverty and improve nutrition worldwide. i. North-western Europe: Market gardening is well developed in the densely populated industtil districts in Britain, Denmark, Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. What are the Characteristics of Commercial Dairy Farming? They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture. They work as gardeners, growers, therapists, designers, a… A common feature of market gardens and truck farms is the high degree of commercialisation forj types of horticultural and olericultural products. Sweet potatoes grow and bear good crops where the average monthly rainfall, throughout the year, exceeds 25 cm (10 inches), but they grow even better where there is a dry season. The chrysanthemum flowers only in short daylight periods, although artificial lighting in nurseries can produce flowers the year round. Temperate zones for horticulture cannot be defined exactly by lines of latitude or longitude but are usually regarded as including those areas where frost in winter occurs, even though rarely. The oldest Horticultural society in the world, founded in 1768, is the Ancient Society of York Florists. Horticulture includes the production and use of plants for food, comfort, and beautifi-cation. First, it generally encompasses a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large fields of single crops. Tropical greens from the Malay Peninsula are not as good as those grown in South China, the Hawaiian Islands, and Puerto Rico. There are both simple and more advanced forms of cultivation used in horticultural societies. In the cornfields, multiple crops were grown such as beans (using cornstalks as supports), squash, pumpkins and chilli peppers, in some cultures tended mainly or exclusively by women. What are the Characteristics of Horticulture and Floriculture? By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. (1957) The Ancient Sun Kingdoms Of The Americas.  European settlers called it Terra Preta de Indio. Vegetable crops vary in kind and quality with the presence or absence of periodic dry seasons. NJHA programs are designed to help young people obtain a basic understanding of, and develop skills in, the ever-expanding art and science of horticulture.  Horticulturists apply knowledge, skills, and technologies to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs. Introductory Horticulture, 9th ed. ii. In the temperate zones are the great coniferous and deciduous forests: pine, spruce, fir, most of the cypresses, the deciduous oaks (but excluding many of the evergreen ones), ash, birch, and linden. i. Horticulture, the branch of plant agriculture dealing with garden crops, generally fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. Specific cultural requirements.  Also, the CIoH has an international branch for members outside of these islands. Bulbs, annuals, herbaceous perennials, and deciduous trees become more frost-resistant with the fall of sap and therefore have a better chance of passing the resting season undamaged. Horticulture primarily differs from agriculture in two ways. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Here you can publish your research papers, essays, letters, stories, poetries, biographies and allied information with a single vision to liberate knowledge. Particular features such as rose gardens, herbaceous borders, annual borders, woodland gardens, and rock gardens are also those of temperate-zone gardens. Secondly, horticultural cultivations generally include a wide variety of crops, even including fruit trees with ground crops. In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry. Another influence is the varying length of darkness and light throughout the year, so that many plants, such as chrysanthemums, have a strong photoperiodism. Horticulture, the branch of plant agriculture dealing with garden crops, generally fruits, vegetables, and ornamental plants. At present, horticulture can be defined as the science and technique of production, processing and merchandising of fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices, plantations medicinal and aromatic crops.. The field of sci-ence that deals with the cultivation of horticultural plants is known as horticulture science. Pomology deals with fruit and nut crops. iii. The International Society for Horticultural Science promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science. Their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, yields, quality, nutritional value and resistance to insects, diseases and environmental stresses. " A more precise definition can be given "The cultivation, processing, and sale of fruits, nuts, vegetables, and ornamental plants as well as many additional services". In addition to market gardening, a modern development in the industrial regions of western Europeai North America is factory farming. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The specialization of the horticulturist and the success of the crop are influenced by many factors. The scale of farming is small and intensive. For example, the scarlet runner bean, a common plant in temperate regions, grows, flowers, and develops pods normally on the high slopes of Mount Meru in Africa near the Equator, but it will not set pods in Hong Kong, a subtropical situation a little south of the Tropic of Cancer but at a low elevation. In terms of scale, horticulture falls between domestic gardening and field agriculture, though all forms of cultivation naturally have close links. Its two objectives are to achieve an increase in numbers and to preserve the essential characteristics of the plant. The American Society of Horticultural Science promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science in the Americas. There is no sharp line of demarcation between the tropics and the subtropics. The market gardens are located just outside the city in suburban areas or in areas where climatic and soil conditions are particularly favourable. Shyr, C.L. 2017. Horticulture (Hortus- garden, culture- cultivation) is the agriculture of plants, mainly for food, materials, comfort and beauty for decoration.